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Glossary of Terms
Subject - Internet
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Internet Terminology

ACK The acknowledgement bit in a TCP packet. 
Address The numeric location identifier for devices on a network. Also the textual location identifier used in transferring email. 
Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)  Agency that funded some of the initial Internet development. 
Anonymous FTP A file Transfer Protocol enabling users to transfer files from one computer system to another without having an account on the remote system. 
Application Layer That part of the OSI system that manages the communication between application processes. 
Asyncrhonous Transfer Mode (ATM)  A network technology designed to make it easy to build point-to-point high-speed networks. 
Archie A search system for locating files that are available throughout anonymous FTP. 
Bandwidth The capacity of a nework (bits per second). 
Base64 MIME encoding language providing the mapping across different transfer agents. 
Baud The number of times per second a signal can change on a transmission line -- often equivalent to the number of bits per second (bps) being transferred. 
Bookmark Local copy of the address of an Internet site that can be used to relocate that Internet site at a later date. 
Bulletin Board Service A service that permits messages to be posted for others to read. 
Caching Saving information learned during a previous operation to be used in future operations. 
Connection Logical binding between two or more computers to provide a service. 
Cybernaut A person who explores the internet. 
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)  Agency that funded some of the initial Internet development. 
Data Link Layer That part of the OSI system that manages framing, transmission, and error control over a single communication link. 
Domain Name System (DNS)  An application layer protocol providing the naming capability on the Internet. 
Ethernet 100-million bit-per-second networking scheme used for LAN's. 
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)  An archive of answers to questions most commonly asked by new users -- therefore reducing the number of repeated questions. 
File Transfer, Access and Management (FTAM)  OSI file management system. 
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)  An application layer protocol providing file services on the Internet. These set of rules specify how two computers, often very different, are to transfer files between each other. 
Finger A service provided by Internet to determine who is currently logged into a particular host or to find out information about other users. 
GIF Acronym for Graphics Interchange Format, a file format used to store a graphics image. Developed by CompuServer. 
Gopher A menu-driven search tool for locating files within FTP archives as well as other resources. 
Hits Successful completion of a search or users accessing a site. 
Homepage A page of information accessible through a web browser on the World Wide Web. 
Host A computer system or computing device on the Internet usually with a unique address. 
HyperText Markup Language (HTML) Computer language use to define the contents and format of a hypermedia document read by a Web browser on the WWW. 
HyperText Transport Protocol) The protocol used to access documents on the World Wide Web using Uniform Resource Locator as a reference. 
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) A reporting protocol for the IP addressing. 
Interactive Mail Access Protocol (IMAP) Application layer protocol providing mail retrieval on the Internet. 
Internet A collection of networks, throughout the world, running a set of protocols referred to as the Internet Protocols. It has also been referred to as the ARPA net, DARPA Internet, NSF/DARPA Internet, or the Federal Research Internetwork. 
Internet Protocol (IP) The network layer protocol that provides a connectionless-mode network service. 
Internet Relay Chat (IRC) A protocol that enables users to interactively communicate using a keyboard. 
IP Address A 32 bit numeric address used to represent a location on the Internet. 
Knowbot A master directory that contains email address from the NIC WHOIS database. 
ListServ A program that maintains lists of electronic email addresses of people with common interests. Sending something to that list automatically gets forwarded to everyone on that list. 
Local Area Network (LAN) A collection of computers or computing devices, with in a limited geographical area, connected together in order to provide communication and data transfers between the members of the collection. 
Mosaic A simple computer program that provides an interactive interface to the World Wide Web, and other Internet services. 
Multi-purpose Internet Mail Extension (MIME) The format for transferring multimedia type file transfers across the Internet. Since email messages are designed for text data, this format converts non- text data into a text-based format. 
Multi-User Dungeons (MUDs) The format for transferring multimedia type files across the Internet. 
Network File System(NFS) A process developed by Sun Microsystems to allow computers to communicate and share file systems. A difference between NFS and FTP is that FTP copies the entire file while NFS only transfers what is needed as it is needed. 
Network Information Center (NIC) A facility providing information about the Internet, the software and services available, as well as the people who supply services. They can be reached by phone (800)444-4345 or email mailserv@ds.internic.net. 
Network Layer That part of the OSI system that manages the data transfer across the network which remaining independent of the network topologies and media. 
Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) The application layer protocol that provides the news article transfer service on the Internet. 
Network Time Protocol (NTP) A protocol used to maintain a centeral coordination of time on the hosts around the Internet based on Greenwich Mean Time. 
Newsgroup A single special interest group that correspond via email. 
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) A set of international agreements to coordinate communications between computers and networks from different manufactures and technologies. 
Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) Encryption for email using a public key cryptography. 
Physical Layer That part of the OSI system that manages the electro-mechanical interface to the communications media. 
Ping A command that provides a check that a particular host is available and reachable. 
Post Office Protocol (POP) Application layer protocol that provides mail retrieval on the Internet. 
Presentation Layer That part of the OSI system that manages the structure of the data that is being transferred across the Internet. 
Protocols A formal set of rules and descriptions of information formats that allow two computers to exchange information. 
Remote Procedure Call (RPC) Executing commands on remote host computers. 
Request for Comments (RFC) The set of documents used to define the internal workings of Internet. Proposals are written and then posted via email for general discussions. 
Resolve Translation of an Internet Name into its equivalent IP address. 
Server A computer that shares its resources with other computers on a network. 
Shadowing A process where a copy data is stored on a second system to be used just like the first system usually to off-load work from the first system. 
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Application layer protocol providing submission service and message transfer on the Internet. 
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Application layer protocol providing network management services on the Internet. 
Serial Line IP (SLIP) Protocol the enables TCP/IP over a serial communication line such as a telephone line. 
Socket The mapping of a port number to an IP Address. 
Subnet A phyiscal network defined within an IP address.
TCP/IP The software that implements the Internet Protocols. 
TELNET Application layer protocol providing virtual terminal capability on the Internet. 
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Transport layer protocol that manages the connection-based transport service on the Internet. 
Transport Layer That part of the OSI system that manages the data transfers across the network. 
Uniform Resource Locator (URL) A text-based address used by World Wide Web browsers to identify a specific page of information. 
UNIX A multi-user, multiprocessor operating system developed by AT&T in the early 1970's. It is the predominant operating system used by the Internet servers but is not required by the user to access the Internet. 
Usenet A set of machines that provides copies of articles grouped by subjects called newsgroups. 
Veronica Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerized Archives. 
Virus A program that can modify other programs by embedding a copy of itself in them or changing their function, often with disasterous results. 
Whois The main domain registration database run by the Registration Services part of the InterNIC reachable by the 'whois' command. 
Wide Area Information Service (WAIS) Generalized system of information retrieval that accesses collections of data from around the world. 
Wide Area Network (WAN) The connection of multiple LAN and computers across large distances -- often hundreds or thousands of miles. 
World Wide Web (WWW) The connection of multiple LAN and computers across large distances. 
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