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Lisp Programming Language

adjoin A LISP function that adds an element to a set if it is not already there. 
atom The most basic building block of LISP consisting of a string of characters beginning with a letter, digit, or any special character other than a left or right parenthesis. Examples could be "happy", "red", "Two", "2", "3.14", and so on. 
car LISP function that returns the first element of a list where the list cannot be the null-list. 
cdr LISP function that returns all elements but the first element of the list. 
cons LISP function that takes two arguements, an S-Expression and a list, and creates a new list with the first element in the new list being the first arguement. 
head First element of a list. 
intersection A LISP function that takes two sets and returns a set containing only the elements that were in both of the initial sets. 
list A collection of S-Expressions, called elements, enclosed in by parenthese. Examples could be "(a b c)", "(1, 2, 3)", "(happy, red, Two, 2, 3.14)". 
member A LISP function that determines if an element is a member of a set. If it is a member of the set then it returns the tail of the list beginning with the first element that matches. If it is not a member of the set then a nil list is returned. 
null A special example of an S-Expression that is both an atom and a list. Example "()". 
Recursion The ability of a program to call itself which also enables a program to define itself in terms of itself. This is frequently used to control the programs execution. 
sets A collection of elements. 
S-Expressions An atom, list, or collection of S-Expressions surrounded by parentheses. 
tail A list consisting of all elements of a list except the head or first element. 
union A LISP function that takes two sets and returns a set containing all of the elements that were in either of the original sets with no duplications. 
For More Info on the Lisp Programming Language

Logic Programming

Backtracking Occurs when a backward chaining process fails after a choice point.  The system returns to mthe choice point and continues to test clauses.
Backward Chaining The process used to prove goals by comparing the goals to the facts or rules.
Choice Point A place where a particular clause is chosen.
Clause A collective term for facts and rules.
Logic Programming A programming style based on first-order logic.  The system attempts to prove goals.
Prolog The original logic programming language.
For More Info on Logic Programming

Logo Programming Language

Logo Programming Language A computer language designed to help people learn.  It teaches problem solving and logical thinking.  It is a dialect of LISP.
Turtle Originally was a robot controlled by the logo programming language.  It eventually moved into a graphical representation on a computer screen upon which it could still be given directions.
For More Info on the Logo Programming Language

AI Info Pages

AI Languages ------------------------------------------------->
Blackboard Technology Client/Server Dylan
Creative Thinking Data Mining/Warehousing Forth
Distributed Computing Expert Systems Lisp
Fuzzy Logic General AI Sites Logo
Genetic Algorithms Help Desk OPS
Intelligent Agents Intelligent Applications Prolog
Internet Logic Programming Scheme
Machine Learning Modeling and Simulation Smalltalk
Multimedia Natural Language Processing  
Neural Networks Object Oriented Development  
Optical Character Recognition Robotics  
Speech Recognition Virtual Reality  

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