Where Intelligent Technology Meets the Real World
Contact PC AI
Expert Systems

Overview: Knowledge-based expert systems, or simply expert systems, use human knowledge to solve problems that normally would require human intelligence. These expert systems represent the expertise knowledge as data or rules within the computer. These rules and data can be called upon when needed to solve problems. Books and manuals have a tremendous amount of knowledge but a human has to read and interpret the knowledge for it to be used. Conventional computer programs perform tasks using conventional decision-making logic -- containing little knowledge other than the basic algorithm for solving that specific problem and the necessary boundary conditions. This program knowledge is often embedded as part of the programming code, so that as the knowledge changes, the program has to be changed and then rebuilt. Knowledge-based systems collect the small fragments of human know-how into a knowledge-base which is used to reason through a problem, using the knowledge that is appropriate. A different problem, within the domain of the knowledge-base, can be solved using the same program without reprogramming. The ability of these system to explain the reasoning process through back-traces and to handle levels of confidence and uncertainty provides an additional feature that conventional programming don't handle.

Most expert systems are developed via specialized software tools called shells. These shells come equipped with an inference mechanism (backward chaining, forward chaining, or both), and require knowledge to be entered according to a specified format (all of which might lead some to categorize OPS5 as a shell). They typically come with a number of other features, such as tools for writing hypertext, for constructing friendly user interfaces, for manipulating lists, strings, and objects, and for interfacing with external programs and databases. These shells qualify as languages, although certainly with a narrower range of application than most programming languages. For more detailed information on expert system shells, see the "Expert System Shells at Work" series by Schmuller PC AI, (1991, 1992).

Glossary Link - Expert Systems


To Distributed Computing
To Fuzzy Logic

Expert Systems Information on the Internet
ACACIA-Knowledge Acquisition for Explainable, Multi-Expert SystemsA multidisciplinary project that offers models, methods, and tools to help to acquire knowledge form multiple expertise sources. 
Aion - Intelligent ComponentsTechnical Overview of the Aion product from Computer Associates.
Artificial Intelligence / Expert Systems of AAAAmerica Accounting Association (AAA) contains information on Rutgers Accounting Web, USC Gopher listing for AAA annual meeting, the AI/ES Section Newsletter, teaching materials, and more. 
Case-Based ReasoningAI-CBR archive for case-based reasoning email forum including back issues, information on joining, and a CBR Home Page. 
Clips - A Tool for Building Expert SystemsWhat are expert systems, what is CLIPS, obtaining a copy of CLIPS 6.0, history of CLIPS, and many more links. 
Clips (4.3) - Mac ArchiveThis compiler allows AI research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. Developed at NASA, it supports forward chaining, Rete algorithm for pattern matching, wildcards/variables in definable fields, and external functions such as linking to other code. (1/23/92 BinHex 4.0, StuffIt 1.51) (Intermittent). 
CMU Artificial Intelligence Expert System RepositoryCMU Artificial Intelligence Expert System Repository -- Contains expert system benchmarks, archives, FAQ, shells, knowledge representation files and software, as well as other expert system and knowledge-based system related information. 
Conceptually Oriented Description Environment (CODE4)A system for knowledge management: acquisition, analysis, and retrieval is intended for analyzing, debugging, and delivering knowledge about some domain. It is designed to be easily adaptable to many applications, such as natural language processing, software specification and design, expert systems, general terminological analysis, or teaching subjects such as biology or UNIX. 
CorticonDecision Management Software - Expert System technology for the world of Web Services . 
Decision/Risk AnalysisLinks to information on decision/risk analysis which is a philosophy, a body of knowledge, and a professional practice for the logical illumination of decision problems; it simultaneously considers the uncertain, dynamic, and complex consequences of a decision, as well as the assignment of value to its consequences. Many large and important problems covering the spectrum of business, government, medicine, and law have been successfully treated by decision analysis. Applications have been made to such problems as evaluating hazardous processes, research and development, and energy investment. 
Enterprise Information Integration (Carnot Project)MCC project addresses the problem of logically unifying physically distributed, enterprise wide, heterogeneous information. Carnot provides a user with the means to navigate information efficiently and transparently, to update that information consistently, and to write applications easily for large, heterogeneous, distributed information systems -- systems where resources may even reside on the conventional, closed environments that pervade businesses worldwide. 
Experimental Knowledge Systems Laboratory (EKSL)Univ of MA research includes: the CLIP/CLASP project; designing autonomous agents; adaptable planner for a complex, real-time environment; interactive steering of complex systems; monitoring plan execution in dynamic environments; empirical methods for artificial intelligence; intelligent scientific assistant; multi-stream dependency detection; and causal modeling. 
Expert SystemsFrom About.com, links to sites with tools, software, information about expert systems
Expert Systems ResourcesA list of books dealing with expert systems
Expert System Shells FAQOther sources of information, bibliography of expert systems books, introductions, documentation, periodicals, conference proceedings, 'Real-time' expert systems, free/cheap expert system shells, commercial expert system shells, associations, and glossary. 
First AIDLearn about th expert system in development designed to assist in fault diagnosis.
Knowledge Query & Manipulation Language (KQML)This is a public directory for information and software related to the design, development, and use of the Knowledge Query and Manipulation Language. 
Knowledge Representation and Reasoning GroupItalian research projects which includes natural language processing and communication, mechanized reasoning, neural networks for complex data analysis, interactive room, and multimedia information database exploration. 
Knowledge Science Institute (KSI) at the University of CalgaryStudies aspects of the knowledge economy through multi-disciplinary theoretical and practical research activities. It tracks social and economic trends involving information technology; develops operational models of knowledge processes in society; innovations in knowledge acquisition, representation, and dissemination technologies. 
Knowledge Systems Lab (KSL) at Stanford UnivFocuses on knowledge representation for sharable engineering knowledge bases and systems, computational environments for modeling physical devices, architectures for adaptive intelligent systems, and expert systems for science and engineering. 
Laboratory of Artificial Intelligence Research (University of Ohio) The strategy used by LAIR is to focus on complex real-world tasks, such as engineering, medical problem solving, or speech perception. 
The Logic GroupThe Logic Group is a research team dedicated to the study of logical systems, i.e. dynamic systems capable of storing, communicating, manipulating, and using information in the form of logical expressions (constraints, equations, negations, disjunctions, rules, and so forth). 
LookSmart - Expert SystemsLinks to FAQs, tools, publications, etc.
OSHAOSHA Advisors are Expert System applications. They are free to the public. 
Principia Cybernetica Project (PCP) Web Site This project tackles age-old philosophical questions, concerning metasystems, with the help of the most recent cybernetic theories and technologies. Transition theory is the name given to the evolutionary world-view which PCP is developing. This node links to the major theoretical results of PCP and the project organization which details the practical methods and tools used by PCP. 
Qualitative Reasoning (QR) Research Group Univ of TexasResearch includes: spatial reasoning and intelligent robotics (TOUR and SSH) and access-limited logic for knowledge representation (Algernon). Part of the AI Lab and the Computer Science Department. 
Research Groups at the Center for Advanced Medical Informatics (CAMIS) Historical projects such as Dendral, Mycin, Emycin, as well as other special projects. 
Stanford Knowledge Systems Laboratory (KSL) Network ServicesProvides a network services accessible by most network browser. Some services are simply hyperwebs of static documents such as those commonly found on the web. Others are dynamic virtual documents or services such as interactive knowledge base editing. 

Sponsors of PC AI - Expert Systems Vendors

A I Developers, Inc.
A I Developers, Inc. is the maker of EZ-Xpert 3.0, an end-user development environment creates rule-based systems with speed and accuracy. End users build and maintain complete systems using only the Wizards and System Status Screen with no code to write. EZ-Xpert verifies the system for 23 verification criteria and generates ready-to-deploy code in C++ and Visual Basic. Conflict resolution is done by EX-Xpert so implementations can test over 20,000 rules per second. See their site for more information.  (www.ez-xpert.com
Amzi! Inc.
Expert system tools as well as building web-based advisors and problem solvers.
Knowledge based products and workforce management solutions, with
professional development teams and advanced technologies.

Exsys Inc.
EXSYS software tools are used for building probabilistic, knowledge-based expert systems that use expertise to assist people in decision-making, in performing a wide variety of functions. (info@exsys.com) 

Logic Programming Associates (LPA)
Providers of intelligent web tools, expert systems development tools, data mining, and prolog-based AI products for Windows and Macintosh. 

Provider of  multi-strategy decision support, data mining and text mining solutions and the corresponding APIs. Checkout PolyAnalyst and TextAnalyst systems for data and text mining.

The Haley Enterprise
THE HALEY ENTERPRISE specializes in automated reasoning and machine learning technologies for business rule processing, intelligent agents, information retrieval, and diagnosis. Visit website for product information, literature and to download software.

Other Expert Systems Vendors
Abtech Corporation Phone: (804)977-6086 Fax: (804)977-9615 
Acquired IntelligenceACQUIRE - a breakthrough in modelling knowledge; applications integrate with your homepage and other software applications; AI Inc places a high priority on customer support and services. See their site for on-line demos. 
American HeuristicsAHC is a technology transfer company that specializes in the research and development of advanced software technologies and their application to complex technical problems. 
Attar SoftwareAuthors of the XpertRule range of software for Knowledge-based development, resource optimization, and data mining.  (info@attar.com) 
Blaze SoftwareContains information about their products, services, support, as well as their latest press information. 
Brightware CorporationHome page for Brightware including demonstrations, product information, and upcoming events.
CECASE - University of KansasLISP-based language allows development of Case based reasoning applications. 
Comdale Technologies (Canada) Inc.Intelligent software/services for industrial automation and real-time applications. info@comdale.com
AI Squared Compuserve 71652.2111 
Cognisys Consultants Inc info@churchill.com 
Dymond and Associates, LLCExpert system technology in the SAS environment
GensymCorporate information, press releases, product descriptions. 
info@gensym.com; service@gensym.com; ftp.gensym.com (
G6G Consulting GroupResearch & consulting company specializing in AI and Intelligent software/hardware. 
Gold Hill IncProduct information, service and support contracts. (73312.730@compuserve.com) 
Gordian InstituteA division of American Heuristics Corporation whose mission is to facilitate the transfer of new technologies through first-rate, hands-on, intensive training courses. New courses are added to the curriculum as advancing technologies become sufficiently mature to warrant commercial attention.
Grady Ward (grady@netcom.com) (ftp.netcom/pub/gr/grady) 
HarlequinExperienced in symbolic processing, electronic publishing. Information includes product and service information, applications, and more. 
Hess ConsultingCompany information on their consulting services.
ICaR SystemsHas a legal expert system running online and demo available for download. 
ILOGCompany information, press releases, product data sheets, white papers, articles. 
(info@ilog.com) (ftp.ilog.com) 
Inference CorporationHome page for Inference including demonstrations, product information, and upcoming events. (akiha@inference.com) 
IntelligenceWare us000272@pop3.interramp.com 
Intelligent Machines Inc imi@netcom.com 
Intellisystems Inc. www.intellisystems.com 
Intellix A/SIntellix A/S produces intelligent software for creating internet agents, expert systems for HelpDesk, support, sales, advice, etc. 
Int'l Journal of Applied Expert SystemsSubscription I, editorial board, and other information.
Knowledge GardenOO multimedia and ES development tools. (info@kgarden.com) 
Knowledge Based EngineeringProvides specialist solutions and consultancy with the use of intelligent computer-basedtechnology. Distributor of Gensym's G2 real-time expert system.
Knowledge Broker Inc.Software products and services.
Knowledge Technologies Int'lSpecializes in software development using blackboard technology. Products including Generic Blackbaord Builder, NetGBB, ChalkBox, GBB Runtime and a GBB demonstraton application. (413)256-8990; (800)577-8990.
J. Markowitz Consulting Markwitz@steve.iit.edu 
Matrikon Group of Companies www.matrikon.com/consulting/expert/consulting.htm 
MODiCO Inc. MODICO@aol.com 
New Art Inc. newart@panix.com 
NorthStar Consulting Northstr@ix.netcom.com 
ORSIORSI's products include ExAd, a graphical Expert System based on fuzzy logic. mkt@orsiweb.com 
OXKOCoporate data, product and services information 
Pennington Systems IncorporatedPennington's XTRAN is an expert system for manipulating computer languages. 
Production Systems TechnologyTheir CLIPS/R2 product is an implementation of the CLIPS rule and an object based expert systems tool. 
Phone: (412)683-4000, Fax: (412)683-6347, Email: info@pst.com 
RoboWiz Corporation (pdfisk@ibm.net) (75253.3274@compuserve.com) 
The Schwartz Associates tjs333@juno.com www.zoom.com/tsa 
SoftLaw CorporationThe SoftLaw Group provides products and services which enable the delivery of electronic publishing and decision support applications within public and corporate administration. The Group produces Statute E-Publish and Statute Expert, software for the production of electronic documents and expert system applications. 
Talarian CorporationCoporate data, product and services information 
TeknowledgeSoftware products and consulting services for commercial and defense applications. 
Wise Web WareCreates Internet-based expert systems, multimedia courseware, business solutions. 
Dynamic Search Engine References
Search the web for "expert systems" references using:
GoogleIntelliSeekLycosYahooInfoSeekAlta Vista

Article References
Expert Systems In Prolog Barry, R. (1987) PC AI, 1(2), 22. 
Roof Expert Adeli, H. and Al-Rijleh, M. (1987) PC AI, 1(2), 30. 
Inside VP-Expert Aguiar, S. (1987) PC AI, 1(2), 44. 
Business Experts Chung, M. and Davidson, A. (1987) PC AI, 1(3), 16. 
ESP Drasch, F. (1987) PC AI, 1(3), 61. 
Hidden AI Anaker, P. (1987) PC AI, 1(4), 40. 
Searching For Solutions Wolfgram, D. (1987) PC AI, 1(4), 64. 
User-Developed Expert Systems Williamson, M. (1989) PC AI, 2(2), 11. 
Expert Systems: An Introduction Hintze Miller, B. (1988) PC AI, 2(3), 26. 
Similarity Networks Bailey, D., Thompson, D., and Feinstein, J. (1988) PC AI, 2(3), 29. 
PC Tools Brynjolfsson, E. and Loofbourrow, T. (1988) PC AI, 2(3), 31. 
Playing The Shell Game Macintosh Style Rasmus, D. (1988) PC AI, 2(3),36. 
Rule-Based VS. Procedural Programming Merritt, D. (1988) PC AI, 2(3), 51. 
Artificial Intelligence In Medicine Fein, M. (1988) PC AI, 2(4), 74. 
VP-Expert 2.0: A Demonstration Shafer, D. (1988) PC AI, 2(5), 54. 
Artificial Intelligence In Medicine Fein, M. (1989) PC AI, 3(1), 33. 
AI In Manufacturing Barker, D. and Shoemaker, S. (1989) PC AI, 3(2), 28. 
Building A Learning Expert System Rozier, L. and Shafer, D. (1989) PC AI, 3(4), 40. 
The Frame Problem Eckert, E. (1989) PC AI, 3(5), 52. 
What Is An Expert System? Lane, A. (1989) PC AI, 3(6), 20. 
SAM: Statistics Analysis Mentor Athey, S. (1989) PC AI, 3(6), 56. 
Synthetic Expert Dockery, J. and Oxman, S. (1990) PC AI, 4(1), 50. 
Financial Expert Systems Thompson, D. and Bailey, D. (1990) PC AI, 4(2), 20. 
Expert System Shells At Work: Level 5 Schmuller, J. and Yingsheng, M. (1990) PC AI, 4(2), 38. 
Expert Systems In Banking Thompson, D. and Martin, J. (1990) PC AI, 4(3), 28. 
Here-And-Now And There-And Then Rasmus, D. (1990) PC AI, 4(3), 45. 
Expert System Shells At Work: VP-Expert Schmuller, J. and Yingsheng, M. (1990) PC AI, 4(3), 52. 
Knowledge Distribution Systems Barr, A. (1990) PC AI, 4(4), 26. 
Expert System Shells At Work: Knowledge Pro Schmuller, J. and Yingsheng, M. (1990) PC AI, 4(4), 34. 
Expert Systems Follow-Up Bryant, J. (1990) PC AI, 4(4), 36. 
Second Coming Of DOS Rasmus, D. (1990) PC AI, 4(5), 44. 
Mixed-Language Expert System Berghel, H. and Roach, D. (1990) PC AI, 4(5), 46. 
Expert System Shells At Work: 1St Class Schmuller, J. (1990) PC AI, 4(5), 49. 
AI In Space Benningfield, D. (1990) PC AI, 4(5), 54. 
Intelligent 4GLS Darling, C. (1990) PC AI, 4(6), 22. 
Expert System Shells At Work: KES Schmuller, J. and Yingsheng, M. (1990) PC AI, 4(6), 38. 
Expert Systems For Government Regulations Berghel, H., Green, G., Roach, D., and Meeham, J., (1990) PC AI, 4(6) 50. 
Expert System Shells At Work: Guru Schmuller, J. and Yingsheng, M. (1991) PC AI, 5(1), 40. 
Expert System Shells At Work: Nexpert Object Schmuller, J. and Yingsheng, M. (1991) PC AI, 5(3), 26. 
Rules That Control Rules Darling, C. (1991) PC AI, 5(4), 20. 
Expert Systems In Science Berghel, H., Green, G., Roach, D., Meehan, J., and Place, S. (1991), 5(4), 28. 
Expert System Shells At Work: AIM Schmuller, J. and Yingsheng, M. (1991) PC AI, 5(4), 46. 
Biosphere II Benningfield, D. (1991) PC AI, 5(5), 26. 
Expert System Shells At Work: Mentor Schmuller, J. and Yingsheng, M. (1991) PC AI, 5(5), 42. 
AI In Business And Management: An Overview Warkentin, M. (1991) PC AI, 5(6), 26. 
AI And The Environment: Knowledge-Based Tools For Environmental Decision Makers Greathouse, D. and Decker, J. (1991) PC AI, 5(6), 29. 
Blackboard Systems Landers, S. (1992) PC AI, 6(1), 27. 
AI In Business And Management: Productions And Operations Management Das, S. and Warkentin, M. (1992) PC AI, 6(1), 32. 
Auditing Expert Systems Keyes, J. (1992) PC AI, 6(1), 48. 
AI In Athletics: Monitoring Gymnastic Training Sands, W. (1992) PC AI, 6(1) 52. 
Conference Report: First World Congress On Expert Systems Darling, C. (1992) PC AI, 6(2), 54. 
AI In Business And Management: Finance Warkentin, M. and Hanweck, G. (1992) PC AI, 6(3), 31. 
AI And Agriculture: A Fertile Field For Expert Systems Benningfield, D. (1992) PC AI, 6(3), 41. 
Overview: Expert Systems Schmuller, J. (1992), PC AI, 6(4), 9-10. 
AI And The Environment: The Superfund Cost Estimating Expert System Ketterer, N. and Buehler, R. (1992) PC AI, 6(4) 19. 
Knowledge-Based Intelligent Tutoring System Schaefer, B., Side, R., and Morrison, I. (1992) PC AI, 6(4), 20. 
Expert System Software Tway, L. and Riedel, W. (1992) PC AI, 6(4), 52. 
AI In Business And Management: Human ResourcesGriffith, R. and Warkentin, M. (1992) PC AI, 6(4), 56. 
Knowledge Programming Meets Linear Programming I Ignizio, J. (1992) PC AI, 6(5), 25. 
SpecSystems Dean, R. (1992) PC AI, 6(6), 36. 
Inspector Fryer, B. (1993) PC AI, 7(1), 26. 
Knowledge Programming Meets Linear Programming II Baek, W. and Ignizio, J. (1993) PC AI, 7(1), 45. 
Severence Mentor Montgomery, L. (1993) PC AI, 7(2), 48. 
Teckchek Bookman, H. (1993) PC AI, 7(3), 22. 
AI In Business And Management: Information Resource Management Warkentin, M. (1993) PC AI, 7(3), 35. 
Putting Expert Systems To The Test Touchton, R, and Rausch, S. (1993) PC AI, 7(4), 29. 
GPO Management System Taylor, P. (1993) PC AI, 7(6), 24. 
AI In Business And Management: Customer Service Warkentin, M. (1993) PC AI, 7(6), 36. 
AI In Business And Management: Accounting And Auditing Warkentin, M. and Roohani, S. (1994) PC AI, 8(1), 23. 
Expert Systems: An Overview Of The Field Durkin, J. (1994) PC AI 8(1),, 37. 
FAST Advisor: A Knowledge-Based Credit Analyzer Creekpaum, C., Carter, M., and Gibson, W. (1994), PC AI, 8(4) , 16-23. 
Evidence in Knowledge-Based Systems: Maintaining Beliefs Phillips, D. (1994) PC AI, 8(4) , 28-30. 
Managing Expert Systems: Business Expert Systems and the Academic World Liebowitz, J. (1994), PC AI, 8(5) , 49-50. 
AI In Business And Management: Law And Legal Applications Warkentin, M., Liebowitz, J., Davis, K., and Zeide, J. (1994) PC AI, 8(6), 23. 
Expert Systems Through Visualization Harriger, A. (1995) PC AI, 9(4) , 26. 
Intelligent Data Entry Tway, L. and Riedel, W. (1996) PC AI, 10(1) , 16. 
Smart Safety Plans Goodner, J. and Markowitz, J. (1996) PC AI, 10(1) , 24. 
CBR in Context: The Present and FutureLeake, David B. (1996) AAAI Press/MIT Press, pps 35
Making The Switch Dooley, J. (1996) PC AI, 10(1) , 32. 
An Expert System for Aerospace Tribble, A.C. and Boyadjian, B.V. (1997), PC AI, 11(3) , 16. 
Expert System vs. Procedural Language Development Kronfeld, K.M. and Tribble, A.C. (1998) PC AI, 12(4) , 24. 
Dependency Tracking in Dynamic Knowledge Engineering Veitch, J. (1998) PC AI, 12(4) , 28. 
A Flex-based Expert System for Sewage Treatment Works Support Dixon, M.L.E., Grant, P.W., Moseley, L.G., Spenser, C. (1998), PC AI, 12(4) , 35. 
Measuring Human Skill: An Expert System Approach Breaky, A., Floeck, M. Humphrey, P., and Skisnick, J. (1997) PC AI, 12(5) , 34. 
Knowledge Base Management Systems: A Tool for Building Verified Expert SystemsHicks, R. (1999) PC AI, 13(1), 34
Successful Knowledge Management Systems: An Expert Systems Approach Krovvidy, S. (1999) PC AI, 13(4), 20
IVAN: An Expert System for Pain Control and Symptom Relief in Advanced CancerThompson, J. (1999) PC AI, 13(4), 28
Prolog Assists in Brain Lesions Diagnosis: An MR and CT Features-Based Expert SystemRasuli, P.; Rasouli, F.; Oskouie, A.; Rasouli, T.; Morrish, W. (1999) PC AI, 13(6), 16
Online Expert Systems Bring Advice to Thousands in Navajo Nation: Caseworker Advisor for TANFHuntington, N. (1999) PC AI, 13(6), 20
New Trends in Expert Systems Development and Implementation: The 3rd Generation of Expert SystemsHicks, R. (2000) PC AI, 14(1), 37
Knowledge Managment: More than AI But Less Without ItRasmus, D. (2000) PC AI, 14(2), 35
Knowledge Management Trends: The Role of Knowledge in E-BusinessRasmus, D. (2000) PC AI, 14(4), 16
Expert Systems for Online Advice: Knowledge at your FingertipsHuntington, D. (2000) PC AI, 14(4), 26

Book References
Expert Systems: Human Issues Berry and Hart Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, pps. 263. 
Search: Enter keywords... 

Amazon.com                       logo
Expert Systems for Microcomputers Chadwick and Hannah TAB, pps. 204. 
Expert Systems: Programming in Turbo C Holtz, F. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: Windcrest Books, pps. 208.
Introduction to Expert Systems: Development and Implementation of Rule-Based Expert Systems Ignizio, J.P. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Inc, pps. 402. 
Build Your Own Expert System Naylor, C. Sigma Press, pps 218. 
Expert Systems for Engineers Siddall, J.N. Dekker Publishing, pps. 348. 
Mastering Expert Systems With Turbo Prolog Townsend, C. Howard Sams Publishing, pps. 257. 
Building Expert Systems Hayes-Roth, F., Waterman, D.A., and Lenat, D.B. (Eds) (1983) Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, pps. 444. ISBN: 0-201-10686-8. 
Expert Systems: Artificial Intelligence in Business Harmon, P. and King, D. (1985) New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, pps. 283. ISBN: 0-471-81554-3. 
Building Your First Expert System Nagy PhD, T., Gault MBA, D., and Nagy, M. (1985) Culver City, CA: Ashton-Tate Publishing Group, pps. 295. ISBN: 0-912677-53-8. 
The Rise of the Expert Company Feigenbaum, E. and McCorduct (1988) New York, NY: Time Books pps. 322. ISBN: 0-8129-1731-6. 
Artificial Intelligence: A Knowledge-Based Approach Firebaugh, M.W. (1988) Boston, MA: Boyd & Fraser, pps. 740. ISBN: 0-87835-325-9. 
Expert Systems Tools And Applications Harmon, P., Maus, R., and Morrissey, W. (1988) New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, pps. 289. ISBN: 0-471-83950-7. 
Expert Systems In the Organisation: An Introduction for Decision-Makers Savory, S.E. (Ed) (1988) West Sussex, England: Ellis Horwood Ltd, pps. 154. ISBN: 0-7458-0366-0. 
Designing Expert Systems: A Guide to Selecting Implementation Techniques Kline, P.J. and Dolins, S.B. (1989) New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, pps. 219. ISBN: 0-471-50484-X. 
Artificial Experts: Social Knowledge and Intelligent Machines Collins, H.M. (1990) Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, pps. 266. ISBN: 0-262-03168-X. 
Developing and Managing Expert Systems: Proven Techniques for Business and Industry Prerau, D.S. (1990) Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, pps. 363. ISBN: 0-201-13659-7. 
Building Knowledge-Based Systems: Towards a Methodology Edwards, J.S. (1991) New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc, pps. 248. ISBN: 0-470-21756-1. 
Understanding Expert Systems Using Crystal Jackson, M. (1992) West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, pps. 207. ISBN: 0-471-93580-8. 
Introduction to Neural Networks and Expert Systems Lawrence, J. (1992) Nevada City, CA: California Scientific Software, pps. 264 pages. 
Building Your First Expert System Nagle, T., Nagle, J., Gerholz, L. and Eklund, P. (1992) West Sussex, England: Ellis Horwood Ltd, pps. 644. ISBN: 0-13-175878-0. 
The Engineering of Knowledge-Based Systems: Theory and Practice Gonzalez, A.J. and Dankel, D.D. (1993) Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc, pps. 523. ISBN: 0-13-276940-9. 
Cooperating Expert Systems in Mechanical Design Huang, G.Q. and Brandon, J.A. (1993) Somerset, England: Research Studies Press Ltd., pps. 272. ISBN: 0-86380-151-X. 
Knowledge-Based Systems Analysis and Design Tansley, D. and Hayball, C. (1993) Hempstead, UK: Prentice-Hall International, pps. 528, ISBN 0-13-515479-0 
Virtual Trading: How Any Trader with a PC Can Use the Power of Neural Nets and Expert Systems to Boost Trading Profits Lederman, J. and Klein, R.A. (Eds). (1995) Chicago, IL: Probus Publishing Company, pps. 364. ISBN: 1-55738-812-1. 
Introduction to Knowledge Systems Stefik, M. (1995) San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc, pps. 870. ISBN: 1-55860-166-X. 
Intelligent Systems for Engineering: A Knowledge-based Approach Sriram, Ram D. (1998) Springer Verlag. 
Research and Development in Expert Systems XVMoulton, M. (ed.) and Bramer, M. (ed.) (1999) Springer Verlag. ISBN 1852330864
Knowledge Management Toolkit, The: Practical Techniques for Building a Knowledge Management SystemTiwana, A. (1999) Prentice Hall, pps 640. ISBN 0130128538
Frontiers of Expert Systems: Reasoning with Limited KnowledgeMohan, C. (2000) Kluwer Academic Pub, pps 303. ISBN 0792378156

Other AI Info Categories

AI Languages ------------------------------------------------------->
Blackboard Technology Client/ServerDylan
Creative Thinking Data Warehouse/Mining Forth
Distributed Computing Fuzzy LogicLisp
General AI SitesGenetic AlgorithmsLogo
Help DeskIntelligent AgentsOPS
Intelligent ApplicationsInternetProlog
Logic ProgrammingMachine LearningScheme
Modeling and SimulationMultimediaSmalltalk
Natural Language ProcessingNeural Networks 
Object Oriented DevelopmentOptical Character Recognition 
RoboticsSpeech Recognition 
Virtual Reality  

PC AI Magazine

Phoenix, AZ 85046

PCAI.TH @ gmail.com
Copyright (C) 2001-2002, All rights reserved
Designed by Terry H. and the web team at Knowledge Technology: Comments? webmaster @ pcai.com